Posted 02 May 2014 - 01:09 PM
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2010 vol. 95(8) pp. 3955-64
The effects of injected testosterone dose and age on the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone in young and older men
Lakshman, KM; Kaplan, B; Travison, TG; Basaria, S; Knapp, PE; Singh, AB; LaValley, MP; Mazer, NA; Bhasin, S
BACKGROUND: During testosterone (T) therapy, T is partly converted to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Effects of age, testosterone dose, and body composition on total and free E2 and DHT levels are unknown.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated age and dose-related differences in E2 and DHT levels in response to graded doses of testosterone enanthate in young and older men.
METHODS: Fifty-one young (aged 19-35 yr) and 52 older (aged 59-75 yr) men completed treatment with monthly injections of a GnRH agonist plus randomly assigned weekly doses of testosterone enanthate (25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg) for 5 months.
RESULTS: During testosterone administration, total and free E2 levels increased dose-dependently (dose effect, P<0.001) in both young and older men. Total and free E2 levels and E2:T ratios during T administration were higher in older than young men, but age-related differences in free E2 and free E2:T ratios were not significant after adjusting for testosterone levels, percentage fat mass, and SHBG. DHT levels and DHT:T ratios were dose-related but did not differ between young and older men. Mechanistic modeling of free hormone data revealed that the conversions of T to E2 and DHT were both consistent with saturable Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The in vivo Km values were estimated to be 1.83 nm for aromatase and 3.35 nm for 5alpha-reductase, independent of age. The Vmax parameter for E2 was 40% higher in older men than younger men, but Vmax for DHT was not significantly different between age groups.
CONCLUSIONS: During im testosterone administration, E2 and DHT levels exhibit saturable increases with dose. The rate of whole body aromatization is higher in older men, partly related to their higher percentage fat mass, SHBG, and testosterone levels.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2006 vol. 91(11) pp. 4669-75
Differences in the apparent metabolic clearance rate of testosterone in young and older men with gonadotropin suppression receiving graded doses of testosterone
Coviello, AD; Lakshman, K; Mazer, NA; Bhasin, S
BACKGROUND: Recently we found that testosterone levels are higher in older men than young men receiving exogenous testosterone. We hypothesized that older men have lower apparent testosterone metabolic clearance rates (aMCR-T) that contribute to higher testosterone levels.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare aMCR-T in older and young men and identify predictors of aMCR-T.
METHODS: Sixty-one younger (19-35 yr) and 60 older (59-75 yr) men were given a monthly GnRH agonist and weekly testosterone enanthate (TE) (25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg) for 5 months. Estimated aMCR-T was calculated from the amount of TE delivered weekly and trough serum testosterone concentrations, corrected for real-time absorption kinetics from the im testosterone depot.
RESULTS: Older men had lower total (316 +/- 13 vs. 585 +/- 26 ng/dl, P < 0.00001) and free testosterone (4 +/- 0.1 vs. 6 +/- 0.3 ng/dl, P < 0.00001) and higher SHBG (52 +/- 3 vs. 33 +/- 2 nmol/liter, P < 0.00001) than younger men at baseline. Total and free testosterones increased with TE dose and were higher in older men than young men in the 125-, 300-, and 600-mg dose groups. aMCR-T was lower in older men than young men (1390 +/- 69 vs. 1821 +/- 102 liter/d, P = 0.006). aMCR-T correlated negatively with age (P = 0.0007), SHBG (P = 0.046), and total testosterone during treatment (P = 0.02) and percent body fat at baseline (P = 0.01) and during treatment (P = 0.004). aMCR-T correlated positively with lean body mass at baseline (P = 0.03) and during treatment (P = 0.01). In multiple regression models, significant predictors of aMCR-T included lean body mass (P = 0.008), percent fat mass (P = 0.009), and SHBG (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher testosterone levels in older men receiving TE were associated with an age-related decrease in apparent testosterone metabolic clearance rates. Body composition and SHBG were significant predictors of aMCR-T.
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